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A new horizon for the steroidal alkaloid cyclovirobuxine D (huangyangning) and analogues: Anticancer activities and mechanism of action

Author: Christian a, *, Jihong

Doi: https://ctm.2023.v6.i6.pp01-15

Abstract:

For a long time, huangyangning was a standard therapy for cardiovascular and cerebrovascular illnesses in China. Its active ingredient is the steroidal alkaloid cyclovirobuxine D (Cvb-D). It is on the Chinese pharmacopeia list. This little-known alkaloid has recently come to light as having anticancer effects in both laboratory and animal models. The medicine inhibits phosphorylation of proteins such as EGFR, ERK, Akt, and mTOR, among others, by activating several signaling pathways. Consequently, Cvb-D has anti-metastatic and anti-proliferative effects. Cvb-D and similar natural compounds derived from Buxus species have been studied for their potential anticancer properties in this review. Current knowledge on the molecular targets of Cvb-D is limited; nevertheless, theories have been developed by examining the drug's effects on signaling pathways and drawing comparisons to other drugs. Potential upstream targets of Cvb-D include the proteins EGFR and CTHRC1, which are involved in its anti-proliferative effect. As a further, more audacious hypothesis, the metastasis-associated protein S100A4 is proposed as a possible co-target for Cvb-D. With its well-established anti-cardiovascular effectiveness and promising safety profile, Cvb-D has the potential to be the subject of more mechanistic investigations into its anticancer effects.

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